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"Major" Maintenance

Any maintenance that is beyond the normal, routine upkeep of an asset. It allows the asset to "reach" its useful service life or to "extend" that life. 


A.  Attributes
Major maintenance has the following attributes:

Major maintenance is sometimes distinguished from renewals, which involves the replacement of a capital item. Major maintenance is focused primarily on the preservation of an existing asset.



B.  Classification
Major maintenance tasks can be organized into three broad categories:
  • Fixed Interval tasks - These are time based (such as battery renewal, elevator safety tests, FX hydrostatic testing, pressure relief valve replacement)
  • P-F Interval tasks  - Such as relamping, camera scoping survey, valve service)
  • Floating Interval Tasks - These are condition-based (such as de-energized service, pool basin cleaning, tube bundle cleaning)

C.  Examples

Some examples of major maintenance for the different systems are included below.

      Enclosure System
  • Protective re-coating of exterior wood cladding and wood trim (see figure).
  • Cyclical protective recoating of exterior finishes, such as wood, fiber cement and metal.
  • Cleaning of exterior walls to remove atmospheric dirt accumulations and vegetation debris.
  • Periodic surveys of balconies and decks to confirm care of limited common property elements by individual owners.
  • Apply zinc sulphate or other chemical solution to roof areas susceptible to moss growth.
          Structural System
    • Protective recoating of exposed structural members (wood or steel).
    • Review of post-tensioned anchor pockets for any water intrusion and other distress indicators.
    • Review of balcony guardrail attachments for structural integrity.
    • Review of crack gauges
          Electrical System:
    • De-energized servicing of electrical equipment to remove dust from unit substation, switchgear and transformers (3-5 years).
    • Infrared scanning of electrical panels to identify hot spots for localized repairs.
    • Replacement of the batteries on the emergency generator, fire panel and emergency lighting packs (4-5 years).
    • Replacement of exterior photocells (5-10 years).
    • Group relamping of light fixtures (3 years).
    • Group ballasting of light fixtures (10 DL).
    • Arc Flash study
        Mechanical System     Fire Safety System     Elevators
    • Safety tests on traction elevators every 5 years and hydraulic elevators at 3-year intervals.
        Finishes System
    • Interior repainting of the common areas, such as hallways, lobby and amenity rooms, particularly in high-traffic locations
    • Cleaning of tiles in the pool basin.
         Siteworks System
    • Seal coating of asphalt roadways.
    • Sealing of stamped concrete paving.
    • Clearance pruning of vegetation from exterior walls.
    • Clearing of sediment accumulations from catch basins in roadways and softscaped area.
    • Commissioning of arborist assessment of mature trees, particularly in close proximity to buildings and roadways.
    • Localized full-depth repairs to deteriorated portions of asphalt roadways, including localized re-compaction of softened subgrade and new structural fill, as required, to prevent migration of water into subgrade.
           General

      D. Management Principles
      Some of the challenges facing the managers and decision makes when implementing a major maintenance program:
      • The time-to-value (TTV) is often long-term. For example, the de-energized service of a sub-station has long payback periods. As a result, some owners may not see the immediate return on investment and the major maintenance activities may not receive the required funding. The line-of-sight is not always clear.
      • There is sometimes confusion as to the appropriate funding source for certain types of major maintenance activities. For example should the funds be drawn from the operating account or the reserve account. 
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      Fig. Some examples of major maintenance tasks. Left - Exterior Painting (6-8 year intervals); Right - Sump pump overhaul (6-10 year intervals).


      Comparing the Maintenance-Repair-Renewal (MRR) trade-offs at different organizations.
      Fig. Comparing the Maintenance-Repair-Renewal (MRR) trade-offs at different organizations. As maintenance quality and effort increases so too does the frequency and scope of repairs decrease - however, there is a point of diminishing returns. Do you know where your balance is? 


      Array of the different applications of thermographic scans to various assets
      Fig. Some of the different applications of thermographic scans to various assets.


      Major maintenance tasks as one of the treatments along the P-F Curve in relation to Potential Failure (P) and Functional Failure (F)
      Fig. Major maintenance as one of the "treatment" tasks along the P-F Curve in relation to Potential Failure (P) and Functional Failure (F).

       

      Major maintenance tasks (shown in "orange") for preservation of a capital asset until the it reaches the end of its useful service life and must be renewd.
      Fig. Major maintenance tasks (shown in "orange") carried out at variable intervals for preservation of a capital asset until it reaches the end of its useful service life and must be renewed ("yellow" bar").


      Camera scoping survey in drain pipe to determine concealed conditions and establish scope and specifications for major maintenance tasks
      Fig. Camera scoping survey in drain pipe to determine concealed conditions and establish scope and specifications for major maintenance tasks.


      Comparing minor (routine) maintenance to major maintenance using a roof as an example.
      Fig. Comparing minor (routine) maintenance (shown in "green") and major maintenance (shown in "red") using a roof as an example.


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      Fig.  Hydrostatic testing of fire extinguishers (6 years); Augering of drain lines (as required).


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      Fig.  Tube bundle cleaning (10 years); Infrared thermal scanning (3-10 years).


      Cleaning and regrouting of pool tank basin  Repacking of sand in pool filter
      Fig.  Left - Regrouting of tiled finish in pool basin (3-4 years); Right - repacking of sand in pool filter (2-3 years).


      The maintenance plan organized into seasonal maintenance tasks.
      Fig. The maintenance plan organized into minor maintenance and major maintenance tasks across an annual cycle.


      Samples of major reviews
      Fig. Examples of "major reviews" such as exterior sealant reviews (8 years).


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      Fig.  Generator battery and fire panel battery swap-outs (4 years).



      Major maintenance tasks mapped to the P-F Curve
      Fig. Major maintenance tasks mapped to the P-F Curve.


      Major maintenance tasks plotted on an asset deterioration model.
      Fig. Major maintenance tasks plotted on an asset deterioration model.

      See also:
      Compare with:





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