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|Maintenance Plan (Manual)
guidebook containing specific itemized lists of instructions on how to
keep each component
of an asset in good working order.
A good maintenance plan provides guidance to the organization on the nine “W-questions” of assert management.
Content of a Maintenance Plan
For example, the maintenance plan indicates:
Benefits of Maintenance Plan
The maintenance plan is intended to provide organized guidelines and instructions for preservation activities:
Levels of Maintenance Plans/Manuals
Building maintenance manuals come in many shapes and sizes. A four-tiered classification of maintenance manuals may be considered.
Process of Developing a Plan
The following table provides a summary of the key steps in developing a maintenance plan.
History of Maintenance Plans
In 1999 the government of British Columbia introduced legislation that mandated the provision of maintenance manuals as an integral part of the commissioning process on all new condominium developments and also upon the completion of certain types of large-scale asset rehabilitation and renewal projects. The legislation was the outcome of a commission of inquiry to determine why a statistically significant number of buildings had experienced premature failure of their building fašade and glazing systems – this was colloquially referred to as the “leaky condo crisis”. In addition to maintenance manuals, the new legislation created a homeowner protection office to help restore consumer confidence by providing various consumer protection services, including homeowner and builder education, builder/contractor registration, and programs to monitor minimum warranty standards.
In the 15 years since passage of the legislation, the author has been involved in the preparation, administration, and periodic updating of several hundred maintenance manuals. During this time the format and content of the manuals has gone through iterative changes to reflect emerging insight into how buildings owners and managers:
During the early 2000s, the vast majority of the maintenance manuals “gathered dust on the shelf”. The owners and managers complained that the manuals were not user-friendly and indicated that the instructions in the manuals were impractical and did not adequately recognize their internal governance. An “us-versus-them” mentality had been entrenched in the condo community since it was believed that consultants were partially responsible for the premature failure of the building systems and now those same consultants were preparing manuals to guide the necessary and sufficient maintenance to preserve the warranties on the rehabilitated fašade and glazing systems.
Notwithstanding the political and psychological issues that have impacted the timeliness of some owner groups endorsing and embarking upon the challenging process of bridging their maintenance manuals into an effective maintenance program, there were also some significant technical challenges for the local engineering community to deliver meaningful manuals that effectively empower the owners to self-sufficiency.
Listed below are some of the challenges in administering maintenance plans:
The focus of the paper is on a core set of technical concepts, the lessons learned through interaction with condominium building owners and confirmed adoption of effective programs.
As an example, the maintenance descriptions evolved from: “Clean the roof gutters twice a year” (TbM) to “Inspect the gutters during early Autumn and after inclement weather conditions. Depending on the proximity to trees and other vegetation, clean the gutters at appropriate intervals” (CbM). Articulating these nuanced narratives was the easier of the technical challenges. The real heavy lifting occurred in developing a model to capture these undefined intervals that could be migrated into a maintenance schedule.
The paper provides examples of useful algorithms to capture “if-then” statements for non-predictive (stochastic) maintenance requirements, such as the delay-start cycle on events during the early life of an asset (ie., preceding the P-F interval) and the use of Predictive Maintenance (PdM) technologies during mid-life of an asset (ie, the P-F interval) to detect the leading indicators, lagging indicators and coincident indicators of potential failure (“P”).The maintenance plan informs owners and their managers on how to preserve their tangible capital assets to achieve their full intended service lives and the reserve study enables these stakeholders to anticipate the short-term and long-range funding needs for eventual renewal of their depreciating and wearing assets.
System Maintenance Plans
Listed below are the different systems of facilities, each of which has its own maintenance plan.
Fig. The maintenance plan organized into seasonal maintenance tasks across an annual cycle.
Landscaping HVAC pump service
Fig. Comparing minor (routine) maintenance (shown in "green") and major maintenance (shown in "red") using a roof as an example.
Fig. The maintenance plan organized by task prioritization across an annual cycle.
Fig. The "old fashioned" calendar view still represents one of the best tools to visualize work distributions and to manage the many tasks in the Asset Management Plan (AMP).
Roof drain cleaning Carpet cleaning
Fig. The maintenance plan organized by team member participation.
Fig. "I. Care" takes us through the challenges of interpreting the maintenance manual to find the right blend for the maintenance mix.
Fig. Maintenance location charts are a useful tool to help provide owners with a visual reference that is not available from checklists.
Fig. Sample reports from a maintenance plan.
Fig. Deferred maintenance tasks show as "red" in the distribution of task status across the annual maintenance program.
Fig. Maintenance plan in binder format
Fig. Different types of maintenance tasks distributed across the four seasons of an annual maintenance program.
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