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Maintenance
Text article can be found here.

Work done to preserve an asset (such as a roof or a boiler) and to allow its continued use and function above a minimum accepted level of performance, over its useful service life, without unforeseen renewal or major repairs.

Periodic expenditure and activities sustain the good working order of an asset, rather than improvements to that asset. 

This definition has two integral parts/objective:
  • Satisfying a threshold of ongoing performance; and 
  • Sustaining that performance over some reasonable period of time.  
Some maintenance tasks satisfy the first objective (such as some cleaning activities), while others satisfy the second objective (such as preservation and mitigation activities). 

A further distinction can be made between:

Some maintenance tasks have a demonstrable Return-on-Investment (ROI) and a measurable Time-to-Value (TTV).  For example, we wash the atmospheric dirt accumulations on the inaccessible windows and balcony railing glass so that the occupants of the building can immediately enjoy the views from their suites. The TTV is instant and the ROI is indisputable.  This glass cleaning task satisfies the first part of the definition of maintenance in that it keeps the asset’s function above a minimum acceptable level; however, it has no impact on helping the asset to “reach” the end of its useful life or to “extend” that life. Cleaning the glass is a legitimate maintenance activity that presents a compelling business case to the owners and is therefore seldom compromised in an annual maintenance budget. 


Reasons for Maintenance

Maintenance serves to protect the owners’ real estate investment in a number of ways. Listed below are some of the maintenance motivators:
  • Physical Integrity. To keep the assets in good working order so as to minimize disruptions and downtimes. 
  • Risk Management. To keep the assets in a state of good repair for the owners’ health and safety.
  • Aesthetic Preservation. To keep the assets from deteriorating in appearance and becoming unsightly.
  • Responsible Stewardship. To ensure that the assets achieve their full potential service life.
  • Fiscal Responsibility. To leverage efficiencies that can be reflected on the owners’ balance sheet.
  • Duty of Care. To satisfy a legislated duty that is owed to owners, occupants and guests on the property.
  • Duty to Mitigate. To prevent unnecessary damage to assets that may result in their premature failure.

Maintenance Constraints

Listed below are some of the things that impede proper maintenance, including:
  • Nuisance or Inconvenience  - owners do not want to suffer the inconvenience of a water shutdown or power shutdown to service an asset.
  • Misguided Priorities -
  • Lack of Will - 
  • Insufficient Maintenance Budget
  • Ignorance - 
  • No Champion - somebody to drive the process
  • A long Time-to-Value.
  • Line of Sight - Obscure Line-of-Sight from action on the ground to strategy and from maintenance to the return on investment or return on asset.
  • Return on Asset (ROA) -
  • Return on Investment (ROI)
  • Time to Value - The time to value, may be considered too long to be reasonable.

Types of Maintenance

The literature generally recognizes that there are two broad classes of maintenance, as follows:

The two classes of maintenance are, in turn, organized into four types of maintenance:

Each of these maintenance strategies has their own merits and limitations. A robust maintenance program will therefore utilize an appropriate hybrid of the three approaches.
Comparing the Maintenance-Repair-Renewal (MRR) trade-offs at different organizations.
Fig. Comparing the Maintenance-Repair-Renewal (MRR) trade-offs at different organizations. As maintenance quality and effort increases so too does the frequency and scope of repairs decrease - however, there is a point of diminishing returns. Do you know where your balance is?


Alignment between Maintenance, Repairs and Renewals will help the organization find the optimal MRR ratio
Fig. Alignment between Maintenance, Repairs and Renewals will help the organization find the optimal MRR ratio.


1 1
Fig. Floor polishing (left) and powerscrubbing
(right) are examples of routine maintenance activities.


Alignment of the four different types of maintenance strategies across the asset portfolio on decisions that are risk-based and consider the whole-life of assets will result in a maintenance mix that is in conformity with ISO 55001 standards
Fig. Alignment of the four different types of maintenance strategies across the asset portfolio on decisions that are risk-based and consider the whole-life of assets will result in a maintenance mix that is in conformity with ISO 55001 standards.


The maintenance plan organized into seasonal maintenance tasks.
Fig. The maintenance plan organized into seasonal maintenance tasks.


Chessboard analogy to illustrate some of the challenges facing the maintenance team.
Fig. Chessboard analogy to illustrate some of the challenges facing the maintenance team.



1  Leaf blowing is an example of a seasonal maintenance task.
Fig. Window washing (left) and landscaping (right) are examples of seasonal maintenance activities.


Comparing minor (routine) maintenance to major maintenance using a roof as an example.
Fig. Comparing minor (routine) maintenance (shown in "green") and major maintenance (shown in "red") using a roof as an example.


The impact of maintenance on extending the life of assets as represented on a calendar timeline
Fig. The impact of maintenance on "extending" the life of assets as represented on a calendar timeline.


1 1
Fig. Exterior painting (left) and sealant review
(right) are examples of major maintenance activities.


The maintenance plan organized by team member participation.
Fig. The maintenance plan organized by team member participation.


Generator service is routine maintenance and statutory maintenance.  1
Fig. Generator service (left) and fire extinguisher testing (right) are examples of statutory maintenance activities.


Maintenance Classifications

By Capitalization
Listed below are some maintenance concepts associated with the scale and familiarity of the maintenance tasks
By Time
Listed below are some maintenance concepts associated with time-based maintenance:
By Condition
Listed below are some maintenance concepts associated with condition-based maintenance: By Whom
Listed below are some maintenance concepts associated with who performs the maintenance: By Attitude
Listed below are some maintenance concepts associated with the owners attitude to maintenance:
By Strategy/Risk 
Management of Maintenance

See also:
Compare with:

1
Fig. Thermography is an example of level-3 maintenance since it requires specialized skills and equipment.


  1   1 Fig. HVAC pump service (left) and rooftop air handling service (right) are examples of time-based maintenance (TbM) activities.



The maintenance plan organized by task prioritization.
Fig. The maintenance plan organized by task prioritization.



Pool tank cleaning is an example of major maintenance
Fig. Pool tank cleaning is an example of a major maintenance activity.



1  1
Fig. Roof drain cleaning (left) and pump thermographic scanning (right) are examples of condition-based maintenance (CbM) activities.


Different types of maintenance tasks distributed across the four seasons of an annual maintenance program.
Fig. Different types of maintenance tasks distributed across the four seasons of an annual maintenance program.


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