of service is defined as: "the parameters, or combination of
reflect social, political, environmental and economic outcomes
that the organization delivers" (ISO
LOS is a means for capturing and realizing value
from the organization's assets through the delivery of services (eg. parks, libraries, transit) to stakeholders (such as customers).
Purpose of LOS
Listed below are the key objectives of an LOS framework:
- To provide transparency
- To provide accountability
- To provide for repeatable and consistent measurement, reporting, auditing of inputs, outputs and outcomes
- To ensure effiency in service delivery
- To ensure long-term financial viability in service delivery
- To align service delivery to organizational goals
- To extract value from assets and ensure positive relations with stakeholders
- To optimize the delivery of services
Parameters of LOS
The parameters can include any and all of the following universal customer
Attributes of LOS
- Single-service vs. multi-service coverage
- Quantitative vs. Qualitative measures
- Formal v informal measures
Classification/Models of Level of Service
The networked diagram of ELOS, CLOS and TLOS is referred to as the Value Framework.
Level of Service (E-LOS) - These statements are generally qualitative in nature.
- Customer level of Service (C-LOS)
- How the customer receives the service.The front-of house experience
of the service. CLOS provides lagging indicators of problems with
assets and should be expressed in quantitative terms.
- Technical Level of Service (T-LOS)
- How the organization provides the service. The behind-the-scenes activities of the organization in the
management of the physical condition, demand condition and functional
condition of the assets. TLOS provides leading indicators of problems
- Legislated/Regulated LOS (RLOS) -
Measurement Model #2
Organizations sometimes use the term "results" when they should be referring to "outcomes' or outputs".
- Inputs (T-LOS) - The resources (financial, human and material) devoted to a particiular program. Consult expertise is included.
(C-LOS) - The services, product which result from the inputs. What the
service/program produces. Outputs are measurable and readily determined
(E-LOS) - The effect the program produces on people or issues. A change
that occurred because of hte program/service. Proof that what the
organization is doing accomplishes something.
- Impacts - The long term effects of outcomes.
The following table provides a comparative summary of the attributes of E-LOS, C-LOS and T-LOS.
|--||Lagging indicators||Leading indicators|
|Front of house||front of house||Back of house|
The following table provides and examples of the total portfolio of programs and services offered by the organization.
|Internal service delivery||High|
|Citizen service delivery||Low|
|Could be reduced||20||26%|
|Remain status quo||40||53%|
|Could be improved||14||18%|
|Could substantially improve||2||3%|
|ID||Asset Class||External focus||Internal focus|
|6||Parks & Recreation||High||--|
|9||Fleet & equipment||Low||High|
The following table provides an example of an LOS measure through the framework
E- LOS target
Sources of LOS Information
Listed below are some of the key source of information on levels of service:
These sources would typically vary in terms of the degree of qualitativeness or quantitativeness of the information.
- Official Community Plan (OCP
- Master Plans
- Asset Management Plan (AMP)
Management of LOS (Process)
Management of LOS is achieved throuugh the following principles:
A. Establish the Value Framework
Review existing aspirational documents:
a network tree ("Value Framework") aligned back to organizational
objectives. the framework is arranged using the hierarchy of Enterprise
LOS, Customer LOS and Technical
- Strategies, Plans
- Industry standards
- Previous citizen surveys
- Quality and quantity of the measures
- Ratio of qualitative to quantitative measures
B. Identify Gaps in Service Measures
- Search all master/strategy docs (by keyword, such as "water" and "roads" to find all references to these asset elements.
- Transpose the text into a table
- LOS measures need to be converted from qualitative to quantitative statements
- service delivery levels are outside asset capacity
- service is below asset capacity
C. Estimate Costing of Services
Attach cost estimates for providing each service. Determine financial sustainabilitty
- Maintain LOS
- we need to invest in our existing asset base. Many assets are old and
deteriorating and a risk to service deliveryi. We need to invest just
to stand still.
- Enhance LOS
- Our customers want a higher level of service. Lets invest in our
assets to make an improvement in our level of service and increase our
- Growth & Demand
- The City is getting bigger and we need to expand our service to
accommodate the increasing demand. Lets bring the same service to more
- New Legislation - The regulator has updated the legislation that affects our organization and we need to comply by making some changes.
- Maintain LOS - The investment required to maintain the current LOS to the community and existing stakeholders
- Enhance LOS
- The investment required to provide an identifiable, measurable and
permanent change in the overall LOS to community and existing
stakeholders above the standard previously provided.
- Support growth and demand
- The investment required to provide service for new customers with no
net deterioration from the current LOS provided to existing community
- Address legislative changes - The investment that is required for compliance with new legally enforceable obligations.
- Increase efficiency - The investment required to enable a demonstrable savings in operating expenses
Cost estimates are comprised of the following elements:
The following table provides an example of how the total cost of service (TCS) can be itemized and estimated.
- Staff (to operate and maintain the assets and provide the services
- Equipment and software
D. Engage with Stakeholders
Inform customers of existing and desired levels
E. Set Targets & Roadmap
realistic targets using the SMART framework and insert these targets
into the value framework. The targets should be adopted by top
management and communicationed to stakeholders. In this regard,
Chapter 3 of an Asset Management
Plan (AMP) often includes
information on levels of service.
Listed below are the five types of trends that can be applied to levels of service:
This answers the questions of:
- Positive upward trend
- Negative upward trend
- Positive downward trend
- Negative downward trend
- Steady state trend
E. Trade-offs (Cost, Risk, Performance)
- Where have we been?
- Where are we now?
- Where do we want to get to?
The inevitable trade-offs to achieve the triple bottom line (TBL) objectives.
- Identify critical assets
- determine asset utiliziation levels
- determine asset operating costs
- develop trade-off criteria
F. Monitoring and Measuring
What to be measured:
How to measure LOS:
- Citizen satisfaction monitoring
- Customer Satisfaction Survey
- Willingness-to-Pay Survey
- Measurement method - who and what (survey, etc)
- Measurement calculation - how (stats, etc)
- Measurement interval - when (daily, yearly, etc)
- Reporting method (graphs, text, pictures, etc)
- Reporting interval
- Trend analysis
- Benchmark Analysis/Comparison (eg. CIRC and MBNCanada)
service shortcomings due to asset capacity/performance
Fig. Every stakeholder has a perspective. ISO
55000 (ISO 55001) helps to align these with corporate and asset
The "value framework" for a particular service area expressed as a
hierarchy of Enterprise LOS, Customer LOS and Technical LOS, using a
transit thread as an example.
Fig. The LOS-Cost relationship using transit buses as an example.
inevitable trade-offs and finding consensus with different stakeholder
The four core principles of asset management (including value) are the
foundation of ISO 55001.
The aspirational-transactional hierarchy includes the translation of
ELOS (Enterprise) to CLOS (Customer) to TLOS (Technical).
Fig. LOS varies within
different sectors of the economy. For example, the municipal sector is
concerned with the "community" experience, whereas the hospitality
industry is focused on the "guest" experience.
SMART goals help the organization reach its target.